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The copyright on all the Volvox resources remains with the original authors and individual contributors. All of the contributors have, however, granted a licence for the non-commercial, educational use of these materials, free-of-charge. Most authors have imposed additional restrictions (or given additional permissions) which are represented, where appropriate, by symbols on the individual Volvox documents. This system is exactly like Creative Commons, except that Volvox has its own slightly different symbols that are more easily understood by an international and multi-lingual audience. Volvox also has one or two additional copyright terms. The terms and their symbols are given below. Obviously, not all terms apply to all documents.


Aattribution.pngttribution required

If you use this work, you must give the original author(s) full credit, even if you make a derivative work. You must include the author(s) name(s) and contact details in the document (postal address, eMail address, Web site URL etc.).

Because Volvox is funded by the European Commission, the Commission must also be acknowledged.


Derivative works allowed derivatives.png

You may translate, adapt, build upon, or alter this work, but if you do so, it must be distributed on exactly the same terms as those in this licence. If you wish to publish the derivative work e.g., on a Web site or CD-ROM, you must seek the permission of the original author(s). This is simply to allow us to keep track of any new works, and to allow us to keep you informed of any important changes that you may wish to incorporate into your version.

It is difficult to define exactly what a 'derivative' work is, but your version is derivative if it is based substantially on the orginal version. This includes translations.


 noderivatives.pngNo derivative works allowed

You may not change this work in any way. This may be because we have obtained permission to use the material from someone else who allows Volvox to distribute it, but only in its original form. Alternatively, it may contain copyright items such as photographs that we have purchased a licence to use in the document, but our licence does not allow us to grant others permission to use the items in their own works.Or it may be that the document includes important safety information that we do not wish to become separated from a practical protocol.


sharealike.pngShare and share alike 

You may freely distribute this work, but you must do so under the same terms as this licence. Additonally, if you put this work (or a derivative work) on a Web site or distribute by other means, you must let the author know. If you plan to distribute the Volvox material more widely, or use it to produce a derivative work (perhaps a new version or translation), you must then licence anything you create or produce under the same terms that applied to the original work. So, for example, because our original work was distributed free-of-charge, we would not want others to charge for access to it, or to charge for access to a new version of it Additionally, you may wish to place this work, or a derivative work (perhaps in a different language), on a school web site so that it is easy for your students to access. You may also wish to distribute the work on a CD-ROM for similar reasons. Volvox wishes to keep track of such new versions, and we therefore ask you to tell the author if you plan to distribute the work more widely.


nocommercial.pngNo commercial use without permission

If a work carries this symbol it means that you may use it for your own personal use and for not-for-profit educational purposes, but you can't sell or profit financially in any way from the use of the material without the permission of the author(s). This work cannot be sold, either by itself or as part of a publication such as a book or a CD-ROM. It may not be placed on a Web site that charges for access, or used on a training course that is run for commercial purposes.

If you wish to use the work for commercial purposes, you must contact the author(s) and ask for their permission.


nokits.pngNo practical kits

You may not develop a practical kit or kits that you supply to a third party based on this protocol without the permission of the author(s). This applies even if you plan to distribute that kit to others free-of-charge. There may be reasons why the author is unable to give permission (e.g., if a practical protocol has been donated to Volvox, but that the donor has set limits on how that material may be used, because commercial or other interests are involved).

Please note that this restriction is not intended to stop teachers preparing sets of equipment for their own use or for use by their colleagues in the same institution.


publicdomain.pngPublic domain

This material has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide.


No endorsement   noendorse.png

You may not use this work to endorse a product or service without the permission of the author(s). The Volvox materials are provided for teachers to use in the classroom, not for campaigning or to defame others. So please don't use it to promote political, charitable, commercial or other campaigning purposes. Try to treat others and their work with the respect that you'd expect them to give you and your work.


This page provides links to several tools which you may find useful when using the Volvox web site and resources.


Adobe Reader

Most of the Volvox resources are Portable Document Format (PDF) documents. The Adobe Reader can be downloaded free-of-charge and used to view these documents.



Adobe Flash

Most of the animations produced by Volvox are in Adobe Flash or Adobe Shockwave Flash format. The players for these animations can be downloaded free-of-charge from Adobe:


The Volvox project team is a group of biology teachers and specialists from ten countries and nine institutions across the European Union. The partners in the project are:

    Foreningen af Danske Biologer (FaDB)

    Max-Planck-Gymnasium, München


    École de L'ADN, Nîmes


    - University of Naples, COINOR
    - Department of Biology, University of Padova


    pl1.pngSzkoła Festiwalu Nauki (SFN),
    International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology


The Volvox project was funded by the European Commission under the Sixth Framework Programme. It was a response to the EC call: FP6-2003-Science and Society-5. The official title is: 'Co-ordinated internet-linked networks for promoting innovation, exchanging knowledge and encouraging good practice to enhance bioscience education in European schools.'

The Volvox partners are subcontracted to the European Space Agency under this Call. One of the main outcomes of the ESTI project, which is co-ordinated by the ESA, is the science teachers' journal, Science in School.